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Lupus is an autoimmune illness that affects various organs and tissues in the body It is a chronic condition, which means it lasts a long time and might create persistent health difficulties.


There is no known cause for lupus, however it is likely due to interactions between genes, the environment, and hormones. Lupus strikes women at a higher rate than men, and it often manifests itself during childbearing years. Lupus can be triggered by exposure to the sun, certain medicines, and infections.


Because the symptoms can be varied, the autoimmune disease lupus can resemble many other diseases. Lupus can resemble epilepsy or some mental disorders when the brain is affected.

Lupus can start with a fever. A high temperature can appear suddenly or intermittent fever and general malaise can last for years. About 90% of people with lupus have joint inflammation that can be moderate to severe and affect several joints. Joint symptoms that occur for years may precede other symptoms.

A skin rash is common, often appearing on the face, neck, upper chest and elbows. Blisters rarely develop at the sites of the rash. Hair loss is common in the active stages of the disease.

Some of the common symptoms:

  1. "Butterfly" rash

It is a red rash that appears on the cheeks and nose.

  1. Central nervous system

Involvement of the central nervous system includes headache, convulsions and neuropsychiatric manifestations such as concentration and memory difficulties, mood changes, depression and psychosis (a serious mental condition in which thinking and behavior are affected).

  1. Photosensitivity

Photosensitivity is an excessive skin reaction to sunlight. It usually does not affect the skin covered by clothing.

  1. Discoid lupus

This is a scaly, raised, coin-shaped rash that occurs on the face, scalp, ears, chest, and arms. When these lesions heal, they can leave scars. Discoid lesions are more common in black children than in children of other races.

  1. Ulceration of mucous membranes

These are small sores that appear in the mouth and nose. They are usually painless, but those in the nose can cause bleeding.

  1. Arthritis

The pain can be migratory, which means that it changes location from joint to joint, and it can occur in the same joint on both sides of the body. Arthritis in SLE usually does not cause permanent changes (deformations).

  1. Kidney disease

It is usually asymptomatic at first and can only be detected by urine tests and blood tests of kidney function. Children with significant kidney damage may have protein and/or blood in the urine and may have swelling, especially of the feet and legs.


The diagnosis of SLE is based on a combination of symptoms (such as pain), signs (such as fever) and blood and urine tests, excluding other diseases. Not all symptoms and signs are present at all times, making it difficult to quickly diagnose SLE.


Because the course of lupus is unpredictable, the prognosis is highly variable. The disease often becomes chronic, periods of disease with pronounced symptoms alternating with periods of disease without symptoms that can last for years. Disease exacerbations rarely occur after menopause.

Fever, arthritis, a rash, considerable damage to the heart and lungs, headaches, and other symptoms are present in the disease's less severe version, which is referred to as the mild form.

Lupus has no cure, although medication can help manage symptoms and avoid flare-ups. Medication, lifestyle adjustments, and self-care are typically used in treatment.

Changes in lifestyle, such as frequent exercise, a balanced diet, and avoiding sunshine, can also help manage symptoms.

It is preferable to eat food with a reduced content of fats and with an increased content of antioxidants.

Some of the foods recommended for systemic lupus are:

  • tomatoes,
  • peppers,
  • spinach,
  • fish.

Lupus has an uncertain course, thus the prognosis is quite variable.

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